Pescara, Italy, 2005
The influence of headmasters’ self-efficacy and emotional intelligence towards
teachers’ collective efficacy and school organizational climate
This study was carried out to explore the influence of headmaster’s attributes towards effective schools. The headmaster’s attributes being studied were their self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. Whereas, the attributes of effective school being studied were teachers’ collective efficacy and school organizational climate. The unit of analysis for headmasters attributes was headmaster, and the unit of analysis for effective school attributes was school. A sample of 158 headmasters and 787 teachers from 158 primary schools in Kedah were randomly selected for this study. Primary School Management Efficacy Scale (SEPSeR) and Emotional Competency Inventory – Version 2 (ECI) instruments were administered to the headmasters. Whereas, Collective Efficacy Scale (CES) and Organizational Health Inventory – Elementary (OHI-E) instruments were administered to the teachers. CES and OHI-E scores for every teacher in each school were aggregated to give school’s scores. Factor Analysis statistic was performed to determine the number of factors of SEPSeR instrument which was specially developed for this study. Step by Step Multiple Regression statistic was used to determine the influence of headmasters’ self-efficacy and emotional intelligence towards teachers’ collective efficacy and school organizational climate. It was found that headmasters with high self-efficacy were able to influence teachers’ collective efficacy, and all aspects of school organizational climate except teacher affiliation aspect. Headmasters’ emotional intelligence was found to have influence on all aspects of school organizational climate. However, it was found that teachers’ collective efficacy was not influenced by headmasters’ emotional intelligence. Specifically, the social awareness cluster of emotional intelligence was found to have influence on institutional integrity and resource influence aspects of school organizational climate. Whereas, the social skill cluster of emotional intelligence was found to have influence on 3 out of 5 aspects of school organizational climate, that is, collegial leadership, teacher affiliation, and academic emphasis. It is proposed that future studies should measure the headmasters’ emotional intelligence from various sectors of assessor rather than from one source of self-reporting only. And also the study should focus on how the headmasters’ self-efficacy influenced the teachers’ collective efficacy and school organizational climate, and how headmasters’ emotional intelligence influenced the school organizational climate.